The data sgp is an educational database that provides various information about student growth in academic achievement. This database is used by a number of organizations to assess the effectiveness of schools, teachers, and school leaders. It also helps in estimating student growth percentiles, which are important for measuring the overall progress of students. However, there is a lot of information available about this database and it can be difficult to understand all the different methods and jargon. This article will provide a basic overview of data sgp and help clarify some of the key concepts.
The SGPdata package, which is installed when you install the SGP package, includes exemplar WIDE and LONG format data sets (sgpData_LONG and sgptData_LONG). These data sets are similar in that each case/row represents a unique student and columns represent variables associated with the student at different times. The first five columns, ID, GRADE_2013, GRADE_2014, GRADE_2015, and GRADE_2016, provide the unique student identifier, the grade level at which the student was assessed in each of the past 5 years, and the assessment scale score for each year. The final five columns, SS_2013, SS_2014, SS_2015, SS_2016, and SS_2017, provide the same information but without the student identifier.
In the sgpData_LONG data set, the first 5 columns, ID, CONTENT_AREA, YEAR, and SCALE_SCORE, are required if you want to run student growth projections using the summarizeSGP function. The remaining columns are demographic/student categorization variables that are not required if you are only interested in generating within-subject, cross-year correlations between latent achievement attributes.
It is also worth noting that the smaller within-subject, cross-year correlations at Grades 7 and 8 are likely due to stronger teacher effects on these students’ assessments in earlier grades. This is consistent with previous research that has found strong within-subject, cross-grade relationships between teacher effects and student assessment scores.
However, it is also important to note that this source of variance in aggregated SGPs represents bias if the goal is to interpret these aggregated SGPs as indicators of teacher performance. This bias can be avoided by modeling teacher effects in a value-added model that regresses student test scores on both teacher fixed effects and prior test scores as well as students’ background variables. These models also provide more transparency and interpretability than aggregated SGPs. However, the trade-offs between these benefits and the potential for bias need to be carefully weighed by stakeholders. Whether you are a researcher, policymaker, or teacher, understanding the issues involved in the use of aggregated SGPs will be an important consideration in your decision making process.